Briefly translated from “ПРОМЫСЛОВАЯ КАРТОГРАФИЯ ~ ИНФОРМАЦИОННОЕ ОБЕСПЕЧЕНИЕ РЫБОПРОМЫСЛОВОГО ФЛОТА В ПЕРИОД 1960-1990″
by Google translate “Fishing Grounds’ Navigation Cartography, – to support commercial fishing operation during the period 1960-1990”
Since the 50-s of the last century, large commercial fishing fleet of the USSR, equipped with sophisticated fishing gears and numerous crews on board, – have been fishing in almost all regions of the World Ocean.
In the mid-80s, the annual catch of the USSR fishing fleet was about 10 million tons.
The efficiency of such fishing activities was the one of the highest in the world.
The means of “digital” collecting and integrating diverse and numerous fishing grounds data were not available to fishermen at that time. The technique of accumulating data, analyzing and summarizing millions of bits of information for performing this type of work, – has not yet been developed. Nevertheless, one of the main components of the success was the systematic “manual” collection of fishing grounds’- navigation data, their synthesis and subsequent applied use in the form of paper based’ fishing grounds’ navigation data’s cartography.
Maritime Navigation’s and Fishing grounds’ charts (as it was during the period 1960-1990)
Marine charts are divided into number of main groups: navigation and special; reference; supplementary and monograms; guides and manuals.
They are divided into four sub-groups: marine navigation; radio-navigation; navigation and fishing and river (lake) charts.
Maritime (nautical) charts ( as the example: navysoft.ru/chartindex ) are the main type of nautical charts intended for plotting routes, determining ship’s position at sea and for solving other various @ sea’ navigation tasks.
Marine navigation charts are divided by scale and purpose: general charts, recommended routes’ charts, special’ and plans’ kind of charts.
There are charts to solve individual navigation tasks and/or to meet special requirements, navigation charts with an additional data in the form of various grids and contours.
These maps are radio-navigation and fishing grounds’ navigation charts.
Fishing-grounds charts are for the navigation’s safety of fishing vessels @ open sea and near the coast, as well as to ensure efficiency of fishing operations. These are maritime navigation charts, which are additionally marked with special fishing grounds related data, including:
- fishing grounds’ depth’s data;
- grids & graticule;
- lines & grids for positioning & locating vessel while using radio-navigation systems;
- areas of seabed, which are unsuitable for fishing operations due to the complexity of the seabed topography.
According to the charts’ purpose and content, marine fishing navigation charts can be: general chart for overview, reference’ charts and the actual fishing grounds’ navigation charts:
- Fishing grounds’ Survey charts, – are used: to study & research the conditions of fishing grounds, to make preliminary recommended plots to conduct fish-findings, & plan the areas suitable for fishing activities with various types of fishing gears (trawl, long line, traps) and solving a number of other tasks related to the upcoming fishing.
- Reference maps– are maps to bound the fishing grounds borders by specific areas & to identify hydro-biological characteristics of the targeted fish species’ habitat.
- Fishing Grounds’ navigation charts, – are used to research & select the suitable or unsuitable fishing grounds, and plot & track vessels’ fishing operations & make positioning continuous updated.
Reference and supplementary charts, are a group of very diverse by content charts, and made in projections adopted for maritime navigational charts (Mercator), and, usually, they are of a smaller scale.
They contain information related to physics & geography, technical nature, which cannot be shown on the navigation charts and are of a generalized nature & usually for large sea areas.
- Overview charts, – they can give a general idea of the physics & geography, navigation & hydrography, and economics of the sea/s and ocean/s
- Radio beacons’ and radio stations’ charts
- Hydro-meteorological charts
- Terrestrial magnetism’s charts
- Radio-navigation’ charts
- Seabed bathymetry charts, – a visual representation of the seabed topography expressed by counters, together with individual characteristics: depth marks and as a layer-by-layer’ colouring. Such maps are made and published in Mercator projection for specific areas, seas, oceans or parts thereof
- Seabed surface’s type’ charts, – contain information on the seabed’s type & its sediment & expressed by various individual marks & seabed colours
- Time Zone charts
- Recommended routes charts
Supplementary charts, – represent cartographic basis with much generalized information related to local data, and, sometimes, without it at all. They are intended for solving some navigation tasks, performing various special calculations
- Gridded’ charts ( for example:depths’ grids)
- Blanked graticule charts
- Great Circle’s charts
3. Marine guides (Pilot’age) and Manuals
The information contained in the nautical charts is explained and supplemented by information contained in special text and tabular guides and sailing aids. They are usually published in the form of text’s books.
All books are divided into two types: general navigation and commercial ones.
Navigation books include sailing guides, references and computational manuals.
- Navigation manuals & guides
- Notices to Mariners
- Guidelines for ships in ports
- Description of the routes
- Description of lights and signs
- Radio navigation aids
- The schedule of radio broadcasts of navigation and hydro-meteorological data for seafarers
- Summary descriptions of navigable and / or restricted areas.
Fishing guides and manuals
They are the most important fisheries’ information that cannot be placed on nautical navigation charts. These include guides & descriptions for:
- fishing tracks & routes;
- fish-finding & fishing navigation;
- electronics & fishing equipment usage;
- collecting valuable data for fishing charts, reference books;
- Identifying fish species and marine animals.
Guides and manuals’ usual content: introduction, hydro-meteorological overview, characteristics of the topography of the seabed, description of the seabed fauna, brief characteristics of the areas and the specific sub-area/s within the area.
Guides and manuals on the research & exploration of certain types of fishing are collections of the guides for fish-finding methods of commercially viable fish marks of certain fish species.
Due to the differences in the biology of fish species, methods of fish-finding & commercial fishing, – the guidelines have a different structure. However, the most of those have the following sections:
- The most important information about biology of fish species
- Organization and methods of resources exploration
- Methods of fish-finding & fishing in certain areas & depending on seasonal resource availability fluctuations
- Organization of fishing operations
- Compliance with regulations applied to fishing activity & its documentation
- Various applications
4.Fishing Navigation Charts
Blank grided charts (temporarily replacing fishing and/or navigation charts if they are absent for the specific fish-finding area), – are usually published by cartographic departments of fisheries research and development organizations, in Mercator projection, @ scale from 1: 100,000 to 1: 500,000, & in accordance to the main latitude adopted for the blanked chart region.
Fishing grounds’ grided charts are used by fishing vessels’ watch officers to navigate in fishing area. Fish-finding & fishing navigation courses, vessels’ positions, elements of navigation and fishing grounds characteristics (depth, nature of the seabed, readings of hydro-acoustic fish-finding equipment & other instruments) are consistently plotted on these charts. The same charts for coastal fishing areas and small sub-areas @ open sea are made with a scale from 1: 100,000 to 1: 500,000, & for the open sea areas – 1: 250,000.
If, for example, fishing is the trawl’s tows, – the following marks are usually plotted on the chart:
- the date of fishing in a given area;
- fishing’ (trawl’s tows) free plots or steaming from one fishing area to another one;
- direction and duration of trawl’s tows;
- depth data records during echo-sounding and fish-finding;
- any buoys’ positions;
- seabed obstructions;
- catches volumes;
- water temperatures, – surface & seabed;
- fishing grounds’ seabed’s nature (sediments, fauna, etc).
- & other various data related to fishing grounds.
Captain’s fishing charts, – are to summarize the fishing operations’ data for the area. New information about the fishing grounds’ depths data, nature of the seabed relief, its sediments & fauna, bathymetry’ contours, – are added to the captain’s fishing chart after each visit to specific fishing area.
The captain’s fishing chart may be also further complemented by the data obtained from other vessels fishing in the same area and having good catches.
Research’ reporting fishing charts, – are compiled by the captains in relation to the results of fisheries research in specified areas. These are the main documents on the fisheries research, which are together with the research reports and other data are submitted to the bodies of fisheries research organisations. The scale of such charts: from 1: 100,000 to 1: 250,000. In case if needed, – the larger-scale charts related to the specific surveyed area with particular interest, – may be made & attached to the research charts & reports.
Operational fishing and navigation charts – are used on the research vessels and in the fleet management departments. They are of scale from 1: 200,000 to 1: 500,000 for several adjacent fishing areas. Operational charts are provided with the most important fisheries data, incl., – fishing vessels’ catch results in the main’ and adjacent’ fishing areas.
5.Drawing marks and characteristics of fishing grounds area on fishing charts
The value of navigation and fishing chart’ data is determined by the completeness of the content and the degree of accuracy, which is directly dependent on the quantity and quality of the actual data collected. Therefore, the collection of data for the navigation and fishing characteristics for specific areas should be conducted on each of research and fishing vessel. Basic information on the area of fishing is applied primarily to the captain charts, which must be accurate as much as possible.
The data, which cannot be shown on the captain’s chart, – is to be recorded in the captain’s personal fishing diaries. In these diaries, there are the most interesting observations and considerations about fishing activity, other fishing vessels’ operations, and various notes on peculiarities of the fishery in a particular area.
In cases when there are no much of information about new one or little-researched fishing grounds and in order to clarify information, if available, about the seabed topography (first of all) it is necessary to perform depths’ associated survey of the area.
To identify and/or clarify the area’s depths’ data & contours, – survey must be plotted across the slopes of underwater relief. Within relatively small sub-areas’ of depths’ elevations or depressions & to identify contours around and along of those, – at least two perpendicular depths survey should be made. For example, if the depths range is around 1,000 m, – the distance between the measured depths’ track lines, – must be of, at least, 1 mile. To determine the position of the vessel during the depths survey, – observation must be made as often as possible.
All information characterizing the areas of fishing is to be recorded on the fishing grounds’ and captain’s fishing charts with the greatest possible completeness.
Prior using the blank and/or grids’ charts, it is recommended to plot on those charts the following data (obtainable from the marine navigation chart): coast line/s, if available, depths data, seabed obstructions, restricted areas and others. In addition, and if known, the following data may be added to the fishing chart: recommended trawl’s tows’ courses and plots, surface and bottom water temperatures, other vessels & buoy’s tracks & drifting points, sub-areas boundaries,etc.
During the fishing operations, all newly obtained information may be added to the fishing chart/s with a pencil. After the work is completed, it may be fixed with ink. Temporary entries made by pencil and if they are unnecessary, – are erased.